miRNA as potential biomarkers after liver transplantation: A systematic review
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The publication "miRNA as potential biomarkers after liver transplantation: A systematic review" is now available online in Transplantation Reviews. Authors are Pia F. Koch, Kristina Ludwig, Felix Krenzien, Karl H. Hillebrandt, Wenzel Schöning, Johann Pratschke, Nathanael Raschzok, Igor M. Sauer, and Simon Moosburner.

Early and accurate diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and graft complications after liver transplantation is crucial for timely intervention and improved patient outcomes, but their diagnosis rely currently on invasive biopsy sampling, thus prompting the search for non-invasive Biomarkers. MicroRNA (miRNA) have emerged as promising biomarkers in various pathological conditions, and their potential utility in diagnosing acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation has gained significant interest.

This systematic review analyzes studies exploring miRNA as biomarkers for ACR and graft dysfunction in liver transplantation (PROSPERO ID CRD42023465278). The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was employed. Population data, identified miRNA and their dynamic regulation, as well as event prediction were compared. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers.

The results highlight the potential of miRNA as specific, non-invasive biomarkers for ACR and graft dysfunction following liver transplantation. However, further research is needed to validate these findings and establish standardized diagnostic panels to incorporate them into clinical practice and explore miRNA-based therapies in the future.
Moderate LMWH anticoagulation improves success rate of hind limb allotransplantation in mice
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The publication "Moderate LMWH Anticoagulation Improves Success Rate of Hind Limb Allotransplantation in Mice" is now available online in Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open. Authors are B. Kern, M.-I. Ashraf, A. Reutzel-Selke, J. Mengwasser, D. Polenz, E. Michaels, J. Pratschke, S.G. Tullius, Ch. Witzel, and I.M. Sauer.

The mouse hind limb model represents a powerful research tool in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, but its applicability is limited due to poor graft survival (62%–83%). Vascular thrombosis and massive hemorrhage are the major causes for these drop-outs. We hypothesize that because of better anticoagulation effect and lower risk of thrombocytopenia, application of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) will minimize vascular complications and enhance graft and animal survival.

Fifty allogeneic hind limb transplantations were performed (C57BL/6 to DBA/2 mice) using five different anticoagulation protocols. Bleeding and thromboembolic events were recorded macroscopically by postoperative hemorrhage and livid discoloration of the graft, respectively. Graft perfusion and survival were monitored daily by capillary-refill-time of graft toes within 2–3 seconds. Vascular congestion and tissue necrosis were examined by histological evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin-stained tissue sections.

All transplantations were technically successful. Increase in thromboembolic events and a concomitant decrease in bleeding events were observed with the decreasing concentration of heparin in the perfusion solution. Although treatment of donor and recipient with low dose of LMWH could not reduce thromboembolic events, moderate dose effectively reduced these events. Compared with the poor outcome of graft perfusion with heparin alone, additional treatment of donor and recipient with low dose of LMWH improved graft and animal survival by 18%. Interestingly, animals treated with moderate dose of LMWH demonstrated 100% graft and animal survival.
Treatment of donor and recipient mice with a moderate dose of LMWH prevents vascular complications and improves the outcome of murine hind limb transplants.
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