Early and accurate diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) and graft complications after liver transplantation is crucial for timely intervention and improved patient outcomes, but their diagnosis rely currently on invasive biopsy sampling, thus prompting the search for non-invasive Biomarkers. MicroRNA (miRNA) have emerged as promising biomarkers in various pathological conditions, and their potential utility in diagnosing acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation has gained significant interest.
This systematic review analyzes studies exploring miRNA as biomarkers for ACR and graft dysfunction in liver transplantation (PROSPERO ID CRD42023465278). The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias was employed. Population data, identified miRNA and their dynamic regulation, as well as event prediction were compared. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers.
The results highlight the potential of miRNA as specific, non-invasive biomarkers for ACR and graft dysfunction following liver transplantation. However, further research is needed to validate these findings and establish standardized diagnostic panels to incorporate them into clinical practice and explore miRNA-based therapies in the future.