Rise of tissue- and species-specific 3D bioprinting based on decellularized extracellular matrix-derived bioinks and bioresins
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The publication "Rise of tissue- and species-specific 3D bioprinting based on decellularized extracellular matrix-derived bioinks and bioresins" is now available online in Biomaterials and Biosystems. Authors are Laura Elomaa, Ahed Almalla, Eriselda Keshi, Karl H. Hillebrandt, Igor M. Sauer, and Marie Weinhart.

Thanks to its natural complexity and functionality, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) serves as an excellent foundation for creating highly cell-compatible bioinks and bioresins. This enables the bioprinted cells to thrive in an environment that closely mimics their native ECM composition and offers customizable biomechanical properties. To formulate dECM bioinks and bioresins, one must first pulverize and/or solubilize the dECM into non-crosslinked fragments, which can then be chemically modified as needed. In bioprinting, the solubilized dECM-derived material is typically deposited and/or crosslinked in a layer-by-layer fashion to build 3D hydrogel structures. Since the introduction of the first liver-derived dECM-based bioinks, a wide variety of decellularized tissue have been employed in bioprinting, including kidney, heart, cartilage, and adipose tissue among others. This review aims to summarize the critical steps involved in tissue-derived dECM bioprinting, starting from the decellularization of the ECM to the standardized formulation of bioinks and bioresins, ultimately leading to the reproducible bioprinting of tissue constructs.
Moderate LMWH anticoagulation improves success rate of hind limb allotransplantation in mice
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The publication "Moderate LMWH Anticoagulation Improves Success Rate of Hind Limb Allotransplantation in Mice" is now available online in Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery-Global Open. Authors are B. Kern, M.-I. Ashraf, A. Reutzel-Selke, J. Mengwasser, D. Polenz, E. Michaels, J. Pratschke, S.G. Tullius, Ch. Witzel, and I.M. Sauer.

The mouse hind limb model represents a powerful research tool in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, but its applicability is limited due to poor graft survival (62%–83%). Vascular thrombosis and massive hemorrhage are the major causes for these drop-outs. We hypothesize that because of better anticoagulation effect and lower risk of thrombocytopenia, application of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) will minimize vascular complications and enhance graft and animal survival.

Fifty allogeneic hind limb transplantations were performed (C57BL/6 to DBA/2 mice) using five different anticoagulation protocols. Bleeding and thromboembolic events were recorded macroscopically by postoperative hemorrhage and livid discoloration of the graft, respectively. Graft perfusion and survival were monitored daily by capillary-refill-time of graft toes within 2–3 seconds. Vascular congestion and tissue necrosis were examined by histological evaluation of hematoxylin-eosin-stained tissue sections.

All transplantations were technically successful. Increase in thromboembolic events and a concomitant decrease in bleeding events were observed with the decreasing concentration of heparin in the perfusion solution. Although treatment of donor and recipient with low dose of LMWH could not reduce thromboembolic events, moderate dose effectively reduced these events. Compared with the poor outcome of graft perfusion with heparin alone, additional treatment of donor and recipient with low dose of LMWH improved graft and animal survival by 18%. Interestingly, animals treated with moderate dose of LMWH demonstrated 100% graft and animal survival.
Treatment of donor and recipient mice with a moderate dose of LMWH prevents vascular complications and improves the outcome of murine hind limb transplants.
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